Bailey83221 (bailey83221) wrote,
Index:
* Decades after battle, fight continues; Korea veteran says he was denied Medal of Honor because of racism
* Soldier still waits for medal; Charles M. Bussey was an officer in a all-black army unit during the Korean War. His supporters claim he was a victim of racism.
* After 4 Decades, a Batttle for Recognition of a Soldier Still Goes On
* Of War and War's Alarums
* Event will honor Tuskegee airman
* Charles Bussey -- member of Tuskegee Airmen


Decades after battle, fight continues; Korea veteran says he was denied Medal of Honor because of racism

THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS

May 1, 1994, Sunday

NEWS; Pg. 38A

New York Times News Service

LOS ANGELES - A bitter dispute between the Army and one of its former soldiers over the Medal of Honor has been taken up by a California congressman, raising the possibility of a House debate that could center on racism.

Charles M. Bussey, a retired lieutenant colonel who fought with honor in World War II and Korea and who is black, says he was denied the Medal of Honor for heroics in Korea because of discrimination.

The Army says he was properly honored with its third-highest combat award, the Silver Star, rather than with the highest award for bravery.

Mr. Bussey, then a first lieutenant, led a handful of Army truck drivers in keeping a North Korean unit from outflanking the Army's 24th Regiment in the Battle of Yechon on July 20, 1950.

Mr. Bussey and his charges, armed with only a .50-caliber machine gun and a .30-caliber rile, are credited with killing 258 enemy soldiers in the battle.

The drivers were not in Mr. Bussey's unit, the 77th Engineer Combat Company, but he came upon them when he was returning to the front to rejoin his troops. The North Koreans appeared almost simultaneously, and Mr. Bussey quickly turned the drivers into fighters.

He was also awarded a Purple Heart for two slight wounds.

But Mr. Bussey, now 73 and living in Riverside, Calif., says he was denied the Medal of Honor because a racist white officer vetoed the recommendation.

Mr. Bussey's bravery and his assertions of discrimination were backed by several fellow soldiers. One of them, David K. Carlisle, a black West Point graduate who served under Mr. Bussey after the Yechon battle, took up the campaign almost 20 years ago to get the Medal of Honor for Mr. Bussey.

Mr. Carlisle wrote of the battle and its aftermath in a recent issue of Assembly, a magazine for West Point graduates.

Mr. Carlisle said that a few days after the battle, Maj. Gen. William B. Kean, while awarding medals, said Mr. Bussey should consider his Silver Star a "down payment on the Medal of Honor."

Mr. Carlisle wrote that the paperwork for Mr. Bussey's Medal of Honor had been submitted by the company's first sergeant. Mr. Kean died in 1981.

After the battle, however, Mr. Bussey said he was drinking in a bar with a white officer he served under, Lt. Col. John T. Corley, and that Mr. Corley told him he would not receive the Medal of Honor because the country did not need another Jackie Robinson.

Mr. Bussey said Mr. Corley told him that a black man wearing the medal would encourage black youths to make a name for themselves.

Mr. Carlisle also accused Mr. Corley of derailing the recommendation for the medal. Mr. Corley died in 1971.

LaVaughn Fields, a retired black Army sergeant who saw Mr. Bussey's battle actions while taking part in the fighting some distance away, said Army officers often downgraded awards recommended for black soldiers in Korea.

The campaign of Mr. Carlisle was advanced recently when Rep.

Ronald V. Dellums, D-Calif., who heads the Armed Services Committee, sent a letter to his colleagues urging them to consider Mr. Bussey's case, attaching a copy of Mr. Carlisle's article.

"Seldom have I been so moved by a story of heroism and sacrifice under conditions of hardship in combat," Mr. Dellums wrote. "After the battle, Bussey was recommended for the Medal of Honor. The recommendation disappeared under extraordinary circumstances, and Mr. Carlisle has spent the better part of the last 20 years seeking to have the Medal of Honor award reconsidered."

Bob Brauer, Mr. Dellums' spokesman, said, "We are investigating the process that might lead to the awarding of the Medal of Honor."

But Maj. Mike Wawrzyniak, of the Army's center for military history, said the Army had no record that Mr. Bussey had ever been recommended for the Medal of Honor.

He said the case had been reviewed several times since Mr. Carlisle raised the issue and no evidence had been found to support awarding him the medal.

"When cases go on for this long it tends to be due to the persistence of their advocates and not necessarily the merits of the case at hand," Mr. Wawrzyniak said. "We react based on facts, not accusations."

Mr. Bussey, who grew up in Bakersfield, Calif., attended Los Angeles City College for two years before joining an all-black air unit, the Tuskegee Airmen, who protected Allied bombers on missions over Europe during World War II.

Mr. Bussey said this was the most exciting period of his life, calling the men he flew with "the only real genuinely good people I have ever known."

After the war he moved to Los Angeles and joined the police force, but said he found the job demeaning, and he returned to college. He earned a degree from San Francisco State University and rejoined the Army in the late 1940s.

After retiring from the service in 1966 he worked as a construction consultant until 1986 when he began work on a memoir, Firefight at Yechon: Courage and Racism in the Korean War, which was published in 1991 by Brassey's/Macmillan.

Mr. Bussey, with four grown children, is now working on a history of his family. His wife, Thelma, died in 1977.

The Battle of Yechon is still vivid in his memories, he said, and the bloodletting tested his religious convictions.

"A .50-caliber machine gun will break a man up like a rag doll, just hits them terribly," he said. "I am basically a religious person, not a fanatic or a new-born or any of that foolishness. But if you believe in anything that is Christian, it is thou shalt not kill.

"I didn't know if being a soldier was something that one could be forgiven for. I still wonder, but whether the Bible condones it or not, patriotism and duty are what it's all about under those conditions."

Mr. Bussey, who now spends at least one week a month talking to urban youth about the evils of aimlessness, does not tell them to join the Army.

"After 40 years the personal significance of this medal has largely deteriorated for me," he said. "But the importance is that if I can earn one of these, other kids can earn one as well. I want to be able to tell them that they can be all that they can be in the Army and that the service is grateful. But I can't do that now."

Soldier still waits for medal; Charles M. Bussey was an officer in a all-black army unit during the Korean War. His supporters claim he was a victim of racism.

April 27, 1994 Wednesday

Press Enterprise (Riverside, CA)

LOCAL; Pg. B01

From staff and news services

SUN CITY

When Charles M. Bussey received the Silver Star for heroism during the Korean War, he was told that it was a down-payment for the Medal of Honor he would later receive.

But Bussey was an officer in a "Jim Crow" all-black Army unit commanded by a white colonel who, according to Bussey, thought the nation's highest medal for valor should only be awarded to a black man one way - posthumously.

Bussey, a retired Army lieutenant colonel and Sun City resident, has waited more than 40 years for the final payment.

"Wearing the medal won't mean anything to me anymore - except it is the best thing the country can offer a soldier. And, I earned it," the 73-year-old veteran said yesterday.

Black leaders nationwide are seeking to upgrade valorous awards to black U.S. military veterans who were victims of a segregated, often racist military system up until after the Korean War.

Bussey's case is being championed by a black West Point graduate and Korean War veteran, and by U.S. Rep. Ron Dellums, chairman of the House Armed Services Committee.

However, Bussey will do nothing on his own behalf.

"It would be totally improper for me to do anything. But I welcome anybody who can get the job done. "

Bussey, then a first lieutenant with the 77th Engineer Combat Company, led a handful of Army truck drivers in keeping a North Korean unit from outflanking the Army's 24th Regiment in the Battle of Yechon on July 20, 1950. Bussey and the others, armed with only a .50-caliber machine gun and a .30-caliber machine gun, were credited with killing 258 enemy soldiers in the battle.

A decorated fighter pilot during World War II with the famed all-black Tuskegee Airmen, Bussey had tried being a Los Angeles cop and part-time college student before joining the Army as the Korean War broke out.

On the day of the fighting, Bussey was returning to his unit with the mail when he came across a dozen resting Army truck drivers. Just at that moment, Bussey said he heard gunfire and scaled a nearby hill. He spotted a column of white-clad Koreans coming toward him but was unsure whether they were enemy soldiers.

Bussey ordered the drivers to unload from their trucks the two machine guns and ammunition and hoist them up the hill. Bussey fired a volley over the heads of the oncoming soldiers to determine whether they were friend or foe. The North Koreans immediately began taking defensive positions and lobbed mortar fire into the Americans.

A young driver fell wounded and another was killed. Bussey was nicked by shrapnel in the side and cheek, but pressed the fight on with the two machine guns.

The enemy unit was destroyed. Bussey returned to his unit to report the incident. The next day, he passed the battle scene with his company and saw peasants burying the dead, he said.

Bussey ordered one of his bulldozer operators to dig a huge pit for the dead soldiers. Much later during a reunion visit to Korea, Bussey would not be able to pinpoint the battlefield for U.S. Army investigators who were trying to verify Bussey's valorous acts.

Bussey said the Army has sufficient reports as well as three eyewitness statements to confirm the recommendation by his company's first sergeant for the Medal of Honor.

Bussey's bravery and his assertions of discrimination were backed by several fellow soldiers. One of them, David K. Carlisle, a black West Point graduate who served under Bussey after the Yechon battle, started a campaign almost 20 years ago to get the Medal of Honor for Bussey.

Carlisle wrote of the battle and its aftermath in a recent issue of Assembly, a magazine for West Point graduates.

Carlisle said that a few days after the battle, Maj. Gen.

William B. Kean, while awarding medals, said Bussey should consider his Silver Star a "down payment on the Medal of Honor. " Kean died in 1981.

After the battle, Bussey said, he was in the field sharing a whiskey bottle with his white commanding officer, Lt. Col. John T. Corley. Corley told him he would not receive the Medal of Honor because the country did not need heroic and articulate black leaders, Bussey said.

Carlisle also has accused Corley of derailing the recommendation for the medal. Corley died in 1971.

LaVaughn Fields, a retired black Army sergeant who saw Bussey's battle while taking part in the fighting some distance away, said Army officers often downgraded awards recommended for black soldiers in Korea.

The campaign of Carlisle was advanced yesterday when Dellums, D-Calif., sent a letter to his colleagues urging them to consider Bussey's case, attaching a copy of Carlisle's article.

"Seldom have I been so moved by a story of heroism and sacrifice under conditions of hardship in combat," Dellums wrote.

"After the battle, Bussey was recommended for the Medal of Honor.

The recommendation disappeared under extraordinary circumstances and Mr. Carlisle has spent the better part of the last 20 years seeking to have the Medal of Honor award reconsidered. " Bob Brauer, Dellums' spokesman, said, "We are investigating the process that might lead to the awarding of the Medal of Honor. "

But Maj. Mike Wawrzyniak, of the Army's center for military history, said the Army had no record that Bussey had ever been recommended for the Medal of Honor. He said the case had been reviewed several times since Carlisle raised the issue and no evidence had been found to support awarding him the medal.

"When cases go on for this long it tends to be due to the persistence of their advocates and not necessarily the merits of the case at hand," Wawrzyniak said. "We react based on facts, not accusations. "

Bussey, who grew up in Bakersfield, attended Los Angeles City College for two years before joining the Tuskegee Airmen, who protected Allied bombers on missions over Europe during World War II. Bussey said this was the most exciting period of his life, calling the men he flew with "the only real genuinely good people I have ever known. "

After the Korean War, Bussey earned his degree at San Francisco State University and retired from the Army in 1966. He worked as a construction consultant until 1986 when he began work on a memoir, "Firefight at Yechon: Courage and Racism in the Korean War," which was published in 1991 by Brassey's/Macmillan.

Bussey, with four grown children, is now working on a history of his family. His wife, Thelma, died in 1977.

The Battle of Yechon is still vivid in his memory, he said, and the bloodletting tested his religion convictions.

"A .50-caliber machine gun will break a man up like a rag doll, just hits them terribly," he said. "I am basically a religious person, not a fanatic or a new-born or any of that foolishness. But if you believe in anything that is Christian it is thou shalt not kill. I didn't know if being a soldier was something that one could be forgiven for. I still wonder, but whether the Bible condones it or not, patriotism and duty are what it's all about under those conditions. "

Bussey, who now spends at least one week a month talking to urban youth about the evils of aimlessness, does not tell them to join the Army.

"After 40 years the personal significance of this medal has largely deteriorated for me," he said. "But the importance is that if I can earn one of these, other kids can earn one as well. I want to be able to tell them that they can be all that they can be in the Army and that the service is grateful. But I can't do that now. "

Press-Enterprise staff writer Marlowe Churchill contributed to this
report.

After 4 Decades, a Batttle for Recognition of a Soldier Still Goes On

The New York Times

April 25, 1994

Section A; Page 13; Column 1; National Desk

LOS ANGELES, April 24

A bitter dispute between the Army and one of its old soldiers over the Medal of Honor has been taken up by a California Congressman, raising the possibility of a House debate that could center on racism.

Charles M. Bussey, a retired black lieutenant colonel who fought with honor in World War II and Korea, says he was denied the Medal of Honor for heroics in Korea because of discrimination. The Army says he was properly honored with its third highest combat award, the Silver Star, rather than with the highest award for bravery.

Colonel Bussey, then a first lieutenant, led a handful of Army truck drivers in keeping a North Korean unit from outflanking the Army's 24th Regiment in the Battle of Yechon on July 20, 1950. Lieutenant Bussey and his charges, armed with only a .50-caliber machine gun and a .30-caliber machine gun, are credited with killing 258 enemy soldiers in the battle.

The drivers were not in Lieutenant Bussey's unit, the 77th Engineer Combat Company, but he came upon them when he was returning to the front to rejoin his troops. The North Koreans appeared almost simultaneously, and Lieutenant Bussey quickly turned the drivers into fighters. He was also awarded a Purple Heart for two slight wounds.

Began Campaign in '80

But Colonel Bussey, now 73 and living in Riverside, Calif., says he was denied the Medal of Honor because a racist white officer vetoed the recommendation.

Colonel Bussey's bravery and his assertions of discrimination were backed by several fellow soldiers. One, David K. Carlisle, a black West Point graduate who served under Colonel Bussey after the Yechon battle, took up the campaign almost 20 years ago to get the Medal of Honor for Colonel Bussey. Mr. Carlisle wrote of the battle and its aftermath in a recent issue of Assembly, a magazine for West Point graduates.

Mr. Carlisle said that a few days after the battle, Maj. Gen. William B. Kean, while awarding medals, said Colonel Bussey should consider his Silver Star a "down payment on the Medal of Honor." Mr. Carlisle wrote that the paperwork for Colonel Bussey's Medal of Honor had been submitted by the company's first sergeant. General Kean died in 1981.

But after the battle, Colonel Bussey asserted, a white officer he served under, Lieut. Col. John T. Corley, told him that he would not receive the Medal of Honor because the country did not need another Jackie Robinson. Colonel Bussey said Colonel Corley had told him with disapproval that a black man wearing the medal would encourage black youths to make a name for themselves.

Mr. Carlisle also accused Colonel Corley of derailing the recommendation for the medal. Colonel Corley died in 1971.

LaVaughn Fields, a retired black Army sergeant who saw Colonel Bussey's battle actions while taking part in the fighting some distance away, said Army officers had often downgraded awards recommended for black soldiers in Korea.

Mr. Carlisle's campaign was advanced on Tuesday when Representative Ronald V. Dellums, the California Democrat who heads the Armed Services Committee, sent a letter to his colleagues urging them to consider Colonel Bussey's case, attaching a copy of Mr. Carlisle's article.

"Seldom have I been so moved by a story of heroism and sacrifice under conditions of hardship in combat," Mr. Dellums wrote. "After the battle, Bussey was recommended for the Medal of Honor. The recommendation disappeared under extraordinary circumstances, and Mr. Carlisle has spent the better part of the last 20 years seeking to have the Medal of Honor award reconsidered."

Bob Brauer, Mr. Dellums's spokesman, said, "We are investigating the process that might lead to the awarding of the Medal of Honor."

Army Stands on the Silver

But Maj. Mike Wawrzyniak, of the Army's center for military history, said the Army had no record that Colonel Bussey had ever been recommended for the Medal of Honor. He said that the case had been reviewed several times since Mr. Carlisle raised the issue and that no evidence had been found to support awarding him the medal.

"When cases go on for this long it tends to be due to the persistence of their advocates and not necessarily the merits of the case at hand," Major Wawrzyniak said. "We react based on facts, not accusations."

Colonel Bussey, who grew up in Bakersfield, Calif., attended Los Angeles City College for two years before joining an all-black air unit, the Tuskegee Airmen, who protected Allied bombers on missions over Europe during World War II. This was the most exciting period of his life, Colonel Bussey said, calling the men he flew with "the only real genuinely good people I have ever known."

After the war he moved to Los Angeles and joined the police force. But he found the job demeaning, he said, and returned to college. He earned a degree from San Francisco State University and rejoined the Army in the late 1940's.

After retiring from the service in 1966 he worked as a construction consultant until 1986, when he began work on a memoir, "Firefight at Yechon: Courage and Racism in the Korean War," which was published in 1991 by Brassey's/Macmillan. Colonel Bussey, who has four grown children, is now working on a history of his family. His wife, Thelma, died in 1977.

The Battle of Yechon is still vivid in his memory, he said, and the bloodletting tested his religious convictions.

"A .50-caliber machine gun will break a man up like a rag doll -- just hits them terribly," he said. "I am basically a religious person, not a fanatic or a new-born or any of that foolishness. But if you believe in anything that is Christian, it is thou shalt not kill. I didn't know if being a soldier was something that one could be forgiven for. I still wonder, but whether the Bible condones it or not, patriotism and duty are what it's all about under those conditions."

Colonel Bussey, who now spends at least one week a month talking to urban youngsters about the evils of aimlessness, does not tell them to join the Army.

"After 40 years the personal significance of this medal has largely deteriorated for me," he said. "But the importance is that if I can earn one of these, other kids can earn one as well. I want to be able to tell them that they can be all that they can be in the Army and that the service is grateful. But I can't do that now."

Of War and War's Alarums

The Washington Post

February 10, 1991, Sunday, Final Edition

BOOK WORLD; PAGE X9

Ken Ringle

FIREFIGHT AT YECHON

Courage and Racism

In the Korean War

By Charles M. Bussey

Brassey's/Macmillan

264 pp. $ 21.95

...Lt. Col. Charles M. Bussey's personal memoir of the Korean War and -- to a lesser extent -- World War II is a reminder that battle is a bloody sandwich of adrenalin, exhaustion and horror, where things go both terrifyingly and comically wrong -- sometimes at the same time -- but that some things remain worth fighting for.

For Bussey -- one of the famous "Tuskegee Airmen" of World War II, who also served with distinction as an Army officer in Korea -- those things include not only his country, for which his love is both poignant and palpable, but the future of all American blacks.

"I loved my country for what it could be," he writes, "far beyond what it was."

The Army Bussey served in remained overwhelmingly segregated despite presidential decree, and the bigotry he encountered on and off the battlefield was enough to eat a hole of bitterness through his soul. But Bussey never let that happen. He writes with anger at times, but never bitterness. The service life, he writes, gave him far more than it cost him. Most of all it taught him that "I could thrive even in the bigoted environment in which I found myself. It was not new to me . . . I was bred and born in it, as were my father, my grandfather and his father as well. We'd come to the American continent enslaved. Only the very strong survived the generations of suffering . . . We are, and have always been, survivors. Hardship -- physical, mental and emotional -- was the crucible in which I'd been tempered. Minor setbacks are of little moment. We are here forever."

Eschewing cries of racial victimization, Bussey looses, quite literally, a battle cry of freedom. To watch Colin Powell at a televised briefing after reading Bussey is to realize how much men like Bussey made possible.

Yet however strong Bussey's racial subtext -- he won the Silver Star and the Purple Heart and was recommended for the Congressional Medal of Honor for the Battle of Yechon, which prejudiced Army historians later insisted, against the evidence, had never really happened -- his repeated message is a paean to the professionalism called forth by military life.

"I am the man who led your son in battle," he writes. "I led him in his transition from Sunday school student to a bloodletter on the killing floor . . . I am the type of man who defeated the Canaanites. I felled Jericho. I was the victor at Thermopylae and the hero at Valley Forge. You are free because I believed in your freedom . . .

"I returned your son a far better man than when he came to me. I sent him back to you . . . a man without rancor and without venom, but with the spleen required to keep you and himself free. I gave him discipline where you failed him. I gave him vision beyond your knowledge . . . Above all, I gave him confidence in himself and his fellow man . . . I returned him to you a man -- better than his fathers and better than his sons."

Bussey's battle scenes are visceral, his analyses of terrain and situations intriguing, and his stories of war and its aftermath alternately comic and tragic. A flawed man, he remains haunted by the compromises of his life, some of them consciously and others unconsciously revealed in his book.

But always his writing has the ring of truth. "It is not my intent to make you admire me or men like me, but I want you to know close up the life and times of fighting men," he writes.

It's to his great credit that, after reading his book, we do...

Event will honor Tuskegee airman (Riverside, CA)

September 28, 2002, Saturday

LOCAL; Pg. B03

THE PRESS-ENTERPRISE

SAN BERNARDINO

A dinner-dance to honor Lt. Col. (Ret.) Charles M. Bussey, one of the original Tuskegee airmen, is set for 7 p.m. today at Hangar 695 at San Bernardino International Airport and Trade Center. The event, called "Celebrating the Spirit of America," will benefit the YMCA of the East Valley, the Adopt-A-Bike Computer Program and the Children's Fund.

Bussey, who was a commanding officer in the Army during World War II and served during the Korean War, wrote "Firefight at Yechon." He was recommended for the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Service Cross.

A B-25 Mitchell bomber, used during World War II, will be on display. Music will be provided by the Cab Calloway Orchestra.

Tickets are $ 75 per person.

For more information, call (800) 264-7979 or visit
www.YmcaUsoStyle.com The event is at 294 S. Leland Norton Way,
San Bernardino.
...


Charles Bussey -- member of Tuskegee Airmen

The San Francisco Chronicle

APRIL 20, 2004, TUESDAY,

Pg. B7; OBITUARIES

Charles Bussey -- member of Tuskegee Airmen

Michael Taylor

A celebration of life will be held Friday for Charles M. Bussey, a decorated World War II veteran of the famed Tuskegee Airmen and later a hero in the Korean War.

Mr. Bussey, who lived for much of his life in Daly City and was a pioneer in setting up African American businesses in the Hunters Point-Bayview district of San Francisco during the 1960s, died in a Las Vegas hospital on Oct. 26. He was 82.

Born and raised in Bakersfield, Mr. Bussey joined the Tuskegee Airmen after the start of World War II and became one of 992 African American pilots to win their wings.

"His mother worried about the danger of his flying," Mr. Bussey's brother, Edmund, wrote in a eulogy. "He solved that problem by sending her an airline ticket and insisted that she fly to graduation when he received his silver wings."

Mr. Bussey flew combat missions over North Africa, Italy and Germany. When the war ended, Mr. Bussey decided to stay in the Army and had various assignments at Army posts in Europe and Asia before being assigned command of the 77th Engineer Combat Company in South Korea in June 1950.

In a 1997 interview with CNN for a series of reports about the Cold War, Mr. Bussey said U.S. forces poised to join battle with communist forces in Korea were ill equipped.

"We had equipment left over from World War II, most of which had been in a warehouse someplace and was from unserviceable to nonexistent," he said. "We had no (maps). The only map I saw was one that I had removed from the back page of our newspaper, the Stars and Stripes. And that was the only map that I had for the first couple of weeks. It had no contours, no elevations, it had none of the things other than the location of principal cities. That was all we had. You cannot fight a war that way. You cannot do it."

Nonetheless, there was a war to fight and in July, 1950, Mr. Bussey found himself in the thick of battle.

As then-Secretary of Defense William Cohen put it during a speech in May 1998 commemorating the 50th anniversary of the integration of the armed forces:

"First Lieutenant Bussey was returning to the front when he spotted an enemy unit attempting to outflank his all-black company. Only Bussey, a group of three truck drivers and two machine guns stood between his men and 250 advancing North Koreans. But when the dust settled and the smoke had cleared, there was only Bussey and his men and America had one of its first victories of the Korean War. Reflecting on his heroic service to a country still shackled by segregation, this Silver Star hero later wrote, 'I loved my country for what it could be, far beyond what it was.' Lieutenant Colonel Bussey, thank you for helping America to realize what it could be and taking us beyond what we were."

In addition to the Silver Star, Mr. Bussey also received the Bronze Star, Purple Heart and Air Medal.

After the Korean conflict hostilities ended with the armistice of July 1953, Mr. Bussey was assigned back to Europe and was posted in Berlin, when the Berlin Wall was erected in August 1961. Mr. Bussey's final Army assignment was from 1963 to 1966 at the Presidio of San Francisco. He retired from the Army in 1966 as a lieutenant colonel.

In 1967, Mr. Bussey started an African American-owned and operated business in Hunters Point that refinished furniture. The firm, called Patimik, also had contracts to clean phone booths and make crates for shipping war materiel to Vietnam. In 1969, Mr. Bussey was appointed to San Francisco's Juvenile Justice Commission.

In the early 1970s, Mr. Bussey worked for Bechtel Corp. on the Alaska pipeline and later in Saudi Arabia. In the mid-1980s, he settled in the Los Angeles area, where he taught school and wrote his memoir of combat in Korea, "Firefight at Yechon: Courage and Racism in the Korean War," published in 1991.

In addition to his brother Edmund, of Kensington (Contra Costa County), Mr. Bussey is survived by another brother, Bruce Bussey of Los Angeles; a sister, Verna Beaver of Seattle; two sons, Charles R. Bussey of Daly City and Edmund Bruce Bussey of Las Vegas; two daughters, F Evangeline Seymour of Fairbanks, Alaska; and Patricia Elaine Bussey of San Jose; and five grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.

Friday's celebration of life and memorial service will take place at 7 p.m. in the parish hall of St. Andrew's Church, 1571 Southgate Ave., Daly City.
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