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Sunday, February 19th, 2006

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And the top 10 worst presidential blunders are...


So who had the worst blunder? President James Buchanan, for failing to avert the Civil War, according to a survey of presidential historians organized by the University of Louisville's McConnell Center.

The survey's top 10 presidential blunders were announced Saturday during a President's Day weekend conference called "Presidential Moments."

Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition:The Struggle against Indian Removal in the 1830s
Mary Hershberger

Part 3

     Opposition to the removal bill made its passage more difficult than Jackson had envisioned. The Senate passed the bill by a vote of 28 to 19 on April 24, 1830. The House margin on May 26 was narrower: 102 to 97. Southern representatives, their numbers swelled by the three-fifths clause, voted heavily in favor of the bill; representatives from the rest of the country voted two to one against it. The House vote was so close that Jackson held his veto of the Maysville Road project in check, fearing that if aid to the road were vetoed first, Congress would reject Indian removal. When the veto came down immediately after the removal act passed the House, congressional opponents tried to retrieve the bill before it reached the president's desk, hoping that Congress could reconsider it, but it was beyond their legislative reach. 30

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Have Peace Activists Ever Stopped a War?

By Lawrence S. Wittner


''Dr. Wittner is professor of history at the State University of New York/Albany and the author of Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present (Stanford University Press). He delivered the following paper on January 7, 2006, at a forum sponsored by Historians Against the War at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association.''

The role of peace activism in ending U.S. wars has received very little attention from scholars. Despite the fact that historians and social scientists have studied U.S. peace movements extensively in recent decades, we know much more about peace movements' organizational history than we do about their impact upon public policy. Thus, what I have to say today is a preliminary report.
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Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition:The Struggle against Indian Removal in the 1830s Mary Hershberger

Part 2

     When the Georgia legislature passed a law declaring that "no Indian and no descendant of an Indian, not understanding the English language, shall be deemed a competent witness in any Court of Justice in Georgia," Campbell sent a copy of the law to northern newspapers to fan the protest against removal. Indeed, much of the information that the national press carried on Georgia's legislative moves came from regular reports sent by removal opponents in Georgia itself. Some Georgia periodicals also opposed removal. The Savannah Georgian printed reports from opponents of Indian removal, and the Savannah Mercury opened its pages to the Indians themselves, one of whom lamented that he had heard too many of Andrew Jackson's exhortations to Indians: "I have listened to a great many talks from our great father, but they always began and ended with this: get a little further; you are too near me." 16

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Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition:The Struggle against Indian Removal in the 1830s Mary Hershberger

Part 1

Andrew Jackson's request to Congress in December 1829 for federal monies to remove Southeast Indians beyond the Mississippi River generated the most intense public opposition that the United States had witnessed. In six short months, removal opponents launched massive petition drives that called on Congress to defeat removal and to uphold Indian rights to property. To block removal, Catharine Beecher and Lydia Sigourney organized the first national women's petition campaign and flooded Congress with anti-removal petitions, making a bold claim for women's place in national political discourse. The experience of opposing removal prompted some reformers to rethink their position on abolition and to reject African colonization in favor of immediatism.
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