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Friday, May 12th, 2006
|Animal Farm suppression
Animal Farm, the savage satire against Stalin, became a worldwide best-seller but publication was delayed by sensitivity to Britain's Russian ally. GEORGE ORWELL, above, in his proposed preface, rails against the servile orthodoxy of the English intelligentsia
Copyright Reserved The Estate of the late Sonia Brownell Orwell
This preface is included in Animal Farm - a 50th anniversary edition illustrated by Ralph Steadman and published by Secker & Warburg price pounds 14.99
THIS BOOK was first thought of, so far as the central idea goes, in 1937, but was not written down until about the end of 1943. By the time when it came to be written it was obvious that there would be great difficulty in getting it published (in spite of the present book shortage which ensures that anything describable as a book will "sell"), and in the event it was refused by four publishers. Only one of these had any ideological motive. Two had been publishing anti-Russian books for years, and the other had no noticeable political colour. One publisher actually started by accepting the book, but after making the preliminary arrangements he decided to consult the Ministry of Information, who appear to have warned him, or at any rate strongly advised him, against publishing it. ( Read more...Collapse )
|How America perceives "democracy".
The process of democratization in a country is the organization and execution of a national electoral process. Promoting democracy was thus primary conceived of as encouraging or assisting a country to hold national elections and helping whatever government emerged from the elections to maintain and consolidate power.
This elections-oriented conception of democracy falls short of the conventional western political science definition of pluralist democracy in at least tow important ways. It ignores the crucial question of how much real authority a particular elected government has—whether, for example, an elected government's authority is curtailed in practice by the military, the economic elite, or other power sectors. Additionally, it gives drastically short shrift to the issue of the kinds and degree of political participation that exist within the country in question. Although voting is an important form of political participation, a democracy entails a much broader range of participation including the free expression of opinions, day-to-day interaction between the government and the citizenry, the mobilization of interest groups, and so fourth.
Carothers, Tomas in Lowenthal, Abraham editor, Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America (Johns Hopkins, 1991), p 117.
Critique of current policy to export
and promote democracy throughout the world and propose an alternative model
to promoting democracy
This paper will attempt to quantify the term "democracy". I will ( Read more...Collapse )
then argue that the current justification for invasion of sovereign nations
to export democracy is a façade.
With the use of scientific studies this paper will clearly show that America's
attempts to export democracy have always been and continue to be a dismal
failure. This failed democratic rationalization for hegemony actually is a
pattern of continuity which has a history as old as the United States itself.
To actually export democracy abroad, I will suggest radical changes to the
way the American people are educated and the way that US democracy is administered.
My final conclusion is that the possibility of the changes needed to export
viable democracy is hopelessly remote because of the American people themselves.