Bailey83221 (bailey83221) wrote,

Footnotes and bibliography for The Rise and Fall of Professional Journalism

1 For somewhat different accounts that draw in valuable material, see Politics and the American Press: the rise of objectivity Kaplan, R. (2002) and Just the Facts: How "Objectivity" Came to Define American Journalism Mindich (1998).

2 For the classic statement on professional journalism, see Pulitzer (1989, pp. 190–9).

3 The classic treatments of this topic include: Tuchman (1978); Gans (1979); Fishman (1980). For a more recent critique, from a Canadian perspective, see Sustaining Democracy? Journalism and the politics of objectivity Hackett and Zhao (1998).

4 I am indebted to Ben Bagdikian for much of what follows. See Bagdikian (2000).

5 For a brilliant discussion of this and its implications for democracy, see Lasch (1995, Chap. 9).

6 Interview with Charles Lewis, in Orwell Rolls Over in his Grave, documentary by Robert Pappas (2002).

7 For examples of the CPI’s work, go to

8 See, for example, Epstein (1973); Kovach and Rosenstiel (1999); Bennett (2001); Scheuer (1999).

9 See, for example, Serrin and Serrin (2002); Woodhull and Snyder (1998).

10 For a collection of their reports collected into a book, see Bartlett and Steele (1992).

11 See, for example, Pring and Canan (1983, 1996).

12 Much of this has been written by prominent journalists like Bagdikian. See also, Squires (1993); Underwood (1993); McManus (1994).

13 The definitive work on this issue is Kimball (1994).

14 Robert W. McChesney interview of Rick Kaplan, former president of CNN, March 2001.

15 See Note 6.

16 See, for example, Stevenson and Bumiller (2002, pp. A1, A14); Mitchell (2002, p. A9).

17 See, for example, Moy and Pfau (2000).

18 See, for example, Jackson and Hart (2001, pp. 15–22).

19 See Lasica (2001); Moraes (2002a, p. C7); for a longer discussion of the corporate influence over ABC News, see Meyer (2000, pp. 30–6).

20 See, for example, Kuczynski (2001, pp. C1, C13).

21 See, for example, Hall, L. (2002, pp. 26, 32).

22 See, for example, Puette (1992).

23 Eichenwald (2002, p. A1); for what the media missed at the time, see Ebbers (2002, p. 11).

24 The party was videotaped and released in December 2002. See Associated Press (2002).

25 See, for example, Oppel, Jr. (2002, p. C6).

26 See, for example, Serrin (2000); Borjesson (2002). 27 Robert W. McChesney interview with Linda Foley, Washington DC, July 2002. 28 See, for a recent example, Hall Jamieson and Waldman (2003).

29 See Bozell III and Baker (1990). To establish that even media corporations like General Electric have a “liberal” bias, the authors point to how GE’s philanthropic arm gives a few hundred thousand dollars annually to numerous mainstream groups (e.g. the NAACP, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Audubon Society). GE’s enormous contributions to politicians and multi-million dollar lobbying armada do not rate any mention whatsoever.

30 Another question to be asked, is what, exactly, is a conservative? The “business-can-do-no-wrong” neoliberal of the early 21st century is a very different animal from the classical conservative of earlier times.

31 Telephone interview with Jeff Cohen, producer, Donahue show, MSNBC, December 2002.

32 Quoted in The Washington Post, August 20, 1992.

33 Comment of Joseph Farah, in O’Keefe (2002).

34 Geoffrey Nunberg demolished Bias in a series of articles in 2002. See, for example, Nunberg (2002b).

35 See, for example, Parry (2003); Carter and Rutenberg (2002, p. A24); Rendall (2001, p. 13).

36 Statistic provided by Begala (2001).

37 Robert W. McChesney interview with Rick Kaplan, Urbana, Illinois, March 2002.

Adkins, Tom (2002) “They’re Just a Bunch of Unregenerate Socialists”, 8 December,

Angwin, Julia and Peers, Martin (2002) “Investment in Advertisers Was Key to AOL Income”, The Wall Street Journal Online, 26 August. Associated Press (2002) “Enron Video from 1997 Reportedly Parallels Future Scandal”, 16 December.

Bagdikian, Ben H. (2000) The Media Monopoly, 6th edn, Boston: Beacon Press.

Bagdikian, Ben H. (2001) “A Secret in the News: The Country’s Permanent Poor”, 2 April,

Baker, Edwin C. (2002) Media, Markets and Democracy, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Baldasty, Gerald J. (1992) The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Baldasty, Gerald J. (1999) E. W. Scripps and the Business of Newspapers, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Barringer, Felicity (2001) “Publisher Who Resigned Urges Editors to Put Readers First”, The New York Times, 7 April, p. A10.

Barringer, Felicity (2002a) “Concerns on Space and Revenue Spur Growth of Paid Obituaries”, The New York Times, 14 January, p. C7.

Barringer, Felicity (2002b) “Wire Service Says Reporter it Fired Invented his Sources”, 22 October,

Barringer, Felicity (2002c) “An Old-times Newspaper War for Young Loyalists”, The New York Times, 31 October, pp. C1, C5.

Bartlett, Donald L. and Steele, James B. (1992) America: What Went Wrong, Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel.

Beatty, Sally (2002) “As Hard News Get Even Harder, CNN Segues to Glossier Format”, The Wall Street Journal Online, 5 July.

Begala, Paul (2001) “UAW CAP Conference Delegates Engage in Lively Discussion with Media Panel”, 6 February,

Bennett, W. Lance (2001) News, the Politics of Illusion, 4th edn, New York: Longman.

Bergmeier, Horst J. P. and Lotz, Rainer E. (1997) Hitler’s Airwaves: the inside story of Nazi radio broadcasting and propaganda swing, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bernstein, Paula (2000a) “Serious Newscast Puffed Out”, Variety, 6–12 November, pp. 13, 17.

Bernstein, Paula (2000b) “CNN to Revamp Format, Highlight Personalities”, Variety, 11–17 December, p. 60.

Bliven, Matt (2002) “Enron’s Washington”, 24 January,

Blow, Richard (2002) “Money, Power and Influence: muckrakers become buckrakers”, 31 January, Boland, Vincent (2002) “Media Face Clash with Regulators over Analysts”, Financial Times, 23–24 November, p. 1.

Borjesson, Kristina (Ed.) (2002) Into the Buzzsaw: leading journalists expose the myth of a free press, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Borrus, Amy (2002) “Global Crossing Tossed More Cash Around Town than Enron”, Business Week, 11 February, p. 49.

Bozell, L. Brent, III and Baker, Brent H. (Eds) (1990) And that’s the Way it isn’t: a reference guide to media bias, Alexandria, VA: Media Research Center.

Bumiller, Elisabeth (2002) “Bush Criticized by Lawmakers on Corporate Governance”, The New York Times, 1 August, p. C5.

Burkman, Oliver (2002) “US Press Move to Youth Groove”, The Guardian (UK), 14 November. Byrnes, Nanette and Lowry, Tom (2002) “A Different Yardstick for Cable”, Business Week, 2 September, p. 56.

Callahan, Patricia and Helliker, Kevin (2001) “Knight Ridder Loses Readers but Charges More to Reach Them”, The Wall Street Journal, 18 June, p. A8.

Campbell, Kim (2002a) “TV News Moves Toward Hollywood Star System”, The Christian Science Monitor, 25 January.

Campbell, Kim (2002b) “A Call to the Right”, The Christian Science Monitor, 25 July.

Campbell, Meg (2002) “Newsplex Puts the New in Newsroom”, Editor & Publisher, 12 December.

Cappella, Joseph N. and Hall Jamieson, Kathleen (1997) Spiral of Cynicism: the press and the public good, New York: Oxford University Press.

Carey, James (2002) “American Journalism On, Before, and After September 11”, in: Barber Zelizer and Stuart Allan (Eds), Journalism After September 11, London and New York: Routledge, p. 89.

Carney, Steve (2003) “22% of Americans Get News From Talk Jocks”, 10 January,

Carter, Bill (2000) “At CBS, the Lines Between News and Entertainment Grow Fuzzier”, The New York Times, 26 June, pp. C1, C11.

Carter, Bill and Rutenberg, Jim (2002) “Fox News Head Sent a Policy Note to Bush”, The New York Times, 19 November, p. A24.

Chaffin, Joshua (2002) “Enron in California: a titanic error”, Financial Times, 22 November, p. 20.

Chunovic, Louis (2002) “News Departments Boost Bottom Line”, Electronic Media, 7 January, p. 6.

Commission on Civil Disorders (1989) “The Role of the Mass Media in Reporting of News About Minorities”, in Tom Goldstein (Ed.) Killing the Messenger: 100 years of media criticism, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 200–27.

Conniff, Kimberley (2001) “All the Views Fit to Print”, Brill’s Content, March.

Conniff, Tamara (2002) “Labels Upbraided at State Hearings on Accounting”, 25 September,

Coulter, Ann (2002) Slander: liberal lies about the American right, New York: Crown.

CounterPunch (2002) “From Enron to Black Hawk Down”, 1–15 January, pp. 1, 2. Dionne, E. J., Jr. (2002) “The Rightward Press”, The Washington Post, 6 December, pp. A4, A5.

Dolny, Michael (2000) “The Rich Get Richer”, Extra!, May/June, p. 23.

Douglas, Susan J. (2003) “Navel-gazing the News”, In These Times, 20 January, p. 9.

Downie, Leonard, Jr. and Kaiser, Robert G. (2002) The News About the News: American journalism in peril, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Dunbar, John, Moore, Robert and Sylwester, MaryJo (2002) “Enron Executives Who Dumped Stock Were Heavy Donors to Bush”, The Public I, February, pp. 1, 2, 6.

Dunham, Richard S., Borrus, Amy and McNamee, Mike with Woellert, Lorraine (2002) “Reform Lite”, Business Week, 1 April, pp. 30–32.

Ebbers, Bernie (2002) “Character and Business Methods Sowed the Seeds of Disaster”, Financial Times, 19 December, p. 11.

Economist, The (2000) “Come Back, Ed Murrow”, 7 October, p. 42.

Economist, The (2002a) “Messier’s Mess”, 8 June, pp. 55–7.

Economist, The (2002b) “A Steal?”, 26 October, pp. 57–5.

Economist, The (2002c) “It Pays to Be Right”, 7 December, p. 60.

Editor & Publisher (2000) 2 November.

Eichenwald, Kurt (2002) “For WorldCom, Acquisitions Were Behind its Rise and Fall”, The New York Times, 8 August, p. A1.

Epstein, Edward Jay (1973) News from Nowhere: television and the news, New York: Vintage Books.

Evans, Harold (2002) “The Watchdog Didn’t Bark”, 16 July,

Ewen, Stuart (1996) PR! A social history of spin, New York: Basic Books.

Fahri, Paul (2002) “Talk Radio, Top Volume on the Right”, The Washington Post, 8 May, p. C1.

FAIR Media Advisory (2002) “PBS’s ‘Commanding’ Conflict of Interest: Enron and other corporate giants sponsored new globalization series”, 3 April,

Fallows, James (1996) Breaking the News: How the Media Undermine American Democracy, New York: Vintage.

Farah, George and Elga, Justin (2001) “What’s Not Talked About on Sunday Morning? Issue of corporate power not on the agenda”, Extra!, September/October, pp. 14–7.

Feder, Robert (2002) “Is Medical Magazine Healthy for Journalism?”, Chicago Sun-Times, 23 October.

Fine, Jon (2001) “California Dreaming, Scheming”, Advertising Age, 30 April, p. S1.

Fishman, Mark (1980) Manufacturing the News, Austin: University of Texas Press.

Folkenflik, David (2002) “Medical Show Packages Stories and Sponsors”, The Baltimore Sun, 8 May.

Fost, Dan (2002a) “Strained Relations: business magazines struggle to maintain objectivity under pressure from their biggest tech advertisers”, San Francisco Chronicle, 16 January.

Fost, Dan (2002b) “When Scoops are Product Placements, Press ‘Leaks’ Can Serve a Corporate Agenda”, San Francisco Chronicle, 1 September.

Gans, Herbert J. (1979) Deciding What’s News, New York: Pantheon Books.

Gardner, Howard, Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Damon, William (2001) Good Work: when excellence and ethics meet, New York: Basic Books, Chap. 7.

Gimein, Mark (2002) “You Bought, They Sold”, Fortune, 2 September, pp. 64–74.

Goldberg, Bernard (2001) Bias: a CBS insider exposes how media distort the news, Washington, DC: Regnery.

Goldsmith, Jill (2001) “H’Wood’s High-priced Suits”, Variety, 23–29 April, pp. 1, 48.

Goldsmith, Jill and McClintock, Pamela (2001) “Extra! TV mavens eye paper route” Variety, 12–18 March, pp. 1, 58.

Goldstein, Tom (Ed.) (1989) Killing the Messenger: 100 years of media criticism, New York: Columbia University Press.

Graham, John (Ed.) (1990) “Yours for the Revolution”: the appeal to reason, 1895–1922, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Greider, William (2002) “The Enron Nine”, The Nation, 13 May, pp. 18–22.

Greppi, Michele (2001) “All’s Not Well at ABC News”, Electronic Media, 28 May, p. 3.

Greppi, Michele (2002) “Newsmags Hold Key to ABC’s Sweeps Bump”, Electronic Media, 18 November, p. 2.

Grimes, Christopher (2002) “AOL Inflated Advertising Revenues by Nearly $200m”, Financial Times, 24 October, p. 1.

Grove, Lloyd (2002) “For CBS Correspondent Rose, Things Go Better with Coke”, The Washington Post, 23 April, p. C3.

Hackett, Robert A. and Zhao, Yuezhi (1998) Sustaining Democracy? Journalism and the politics of objectivity, Toronto: Garamond Press.

Halberstam, David (2000) “The Powers that Were”, Brill’s Content, September, pp. 23–6.

Hall, Lee (2002) “20th Anniversary: CNN Headline News; Q&A: Larry Goodman, President, Sales and Marketing”, Electronic Media, 16 December, pp. 26, 32.

Hall Jamieson, Kathleen and Waldman, Paul (2003) The Press Effect, New York: Oxford University Press.

Hallin, Daniel C. (1994) We Keep America on Top of the World, New York: Routledge.

Hannity, Sean (2002) Let Freedom Ring: winning the war of liberty over liberalism, New York: Regan Books.

Harden, Blaine (2001) “In Virginia, Young Conservatives Learn How to Develop and Use Their Political Voices”, The New York Times, 11 June, p. A8.

Harris, Jay T. (2001) “News and Profits”, The Nation, 28 May, p. 6.

Harris, John F. (2001) “Mr. Bush Catches a Washington Break”, The Washington Post, 6 May, p. B1.

Helmore, Edward (2000) “News Going Nowhere?”, The Observer, 20 August, p. 7.

Hoag, Christina (2002) “CBS 4 and Herald Form Media Alliance”, 24 November,

Hofmeister, Sallie (2002) “Charter to Slash Jobs in Wake of U.S. Probe”, 11 December,

Howard, Ina (2002) “Power Sources”, Extra!, June. Huff, Richard (2002a) “Singles to See if Fox’s Price is Right”, New York Daily News, 21 November.

Huff, Richard (2002b) “Doc Quits ABC for Tylenol”, 10 December,

Husseini, Sam (2000) “Checkbook Analysis: corporations support think tanks—and the favor is returned”, Extra!, May/June, p. 23.

Ivins, Molly (2002) “Surprise! Real corporate reform isn’t happening”, Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October.

Jackson, Janine and Hart, Peter (2001) “Fear & Favor 2000: how power shapes the news”, Extra!, May/June, pp. 15–22.

Jarvik, Lawrence (1997) PBS: behind the screen, Rocklin, CA: Forum.

Jensen, Elizabeth (2001) “Headline News Faces Criticism for Channeling Viewers”, The Los Angeles Times, 20 August.

Johnson, Jo and Larsen, Peter Thal (2003) “Vicendi Prepares to Face Legal Scrutiny”, Financial Times, 10 January, p. 20.

Johnson, Peter (2002a) “News Channels Losing Battle for Young Viewers”, 10 December,

Johnson, Peter (2002b) “Few TV News Stories Focus on Hispanics”, USA Today, 16 December, p. 3D.

Jurkowitz, Mark (2000) “When Journalists Become Pitchmen”, The Boston Globe, 10 February, p. F6.

Jurkowitz, Mark (2002) “Leaning on the Media”, 17 January,

Just, Marion, Levine, Rosalind and Regan, Kathleen (2002) “Investigative Journalism Despite the Odds”, Columbia Journalism Review, November/December, p. 103.

Kaplan, Richard L. (2002) Politics and the American Press: the rise of objectivity, 1865–1920, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kelly, Michael (2002) Washington Post syndicated columnist, “Media Now More Like the Public: democratic”, The News-Gazette (Champaign, IL), 20 December, p. A7.

Kimball, Penn (1994) Downsizing the News: network cutbacks in the nation’s capital, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kirkpatrick, David D and Hansell, Saul (2002) “U.S. Initiates Investigation of Accounting at AOL Unit”, The New York Times, 1 August, pp. C1, C2.

Kirkpatrick, David D. and Romero, Simon (2002) “AOL’s Swap Deals with 2 Others Said to be a Focus of the S.E.C.”, The New York Times, 23 August, pp. C1, C4.

Kirkpatrick, David R. (2002) “New Charges Made in Suit on Homestore”, The New York Times, 16 November, pp. B1, B14.

Kovach, Bill and Rosenstiel, Tom (1999) Warp Speed: America in the age of mixed media culture, Century Foundation Press.

Krugman, Paul (2002a) “The Insider Game”, The New York Times, 12 July.

Krugman, Paul (2002b) “The Outrage Constraint”, The New York Times, 23 August, p. A17.

Kuczynski, Alex (2001) “Newsweeklies Turn a Cold Shoulder to Hard News”, The New York Times, 14 May, pp. C1, C13.

Kurtz, Howard (2002a) “Enron–N.Y. Times Co. Deal Highlights Media’s Dilemma”, The Washington Post, 18 July, p. C1.

Kurtz, Howard (2002b) “On CNBC, Boosters for the Boom”, The Washington Post, 12 November, p. A1.

Kuttner, Robert (2002a) “Comment: philanthropy and movements”, American Prospect, 15 July.

Kuttner, Robert (2002b) “So Much for Cracking Down on the Accountants”, Business Week, 18 November, p. 24.

Kuttner, Robert (2003) “Bush Making it a Rocky New Year”, The Boston Globe, 1 January. Larsen, Peter Thal (2002) “AOL Time Warner Sued over Homestead Deals”, Financial Times, 18 November, p. 19. Larsen, Peter Thal, Goldstein, Tally,

Moules, Jonathan and Spiegel, Peter (2002a) “Former Adelphia Chiefs Arrested”, Financial Times, 25 July, p. 1.

Larsen, Peter Thal, Michaels, Adrian, Cheng, Ien and Grimes, Christopher (2002b) “SEC to Probe Forecasts Made as AOL Chiefs Sold Shares”, Financial Times, 23 August, p. 1.

Lasch, Christopher (1995) The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy, New York: W. W. Norton, Chap. 9.

Lasica, J. D. (2001) “Synergy and the Day of Infamy”, Online Journalism Review, 31 May.

Laventhol, David (2001) “Profit Pressures”, Columbia Journalism Review, May/June, pp. 18–22.

Ledbetter, James (2003) “The Boys in the Bubble”, The New York Times, 2 January, p. A29.

Leo, John (2001) “Newsroom Monoculture Inhibits Objective Reporting”, Wisconsin State Journal, 17 July, p. A8. Leopold, Jason (2002) “Secrets and Lies: Bush, Cheney and the great rip-off of California ratepayers”, 21 November,

Lewis, Charles (2002) “Enron Scandal Goes Deep”, Wilmington Sunday News Journal, 24 February, p. A9. Lewis, Russ (2002) “The Press’s Business …”, The Washington Post, 30 January, p. A23.

Lieberman, Trudy (2000) “You Can’t Report What You Don’t Pursue”, Columbia Journalism Review, May/June.

Longman, Phillip J. (2002) “Bad Press: how business journalism helped inflate the bubble”, The Washington Monthly, October.

Loven, Jennifer (2002) “Newspapers Warned About Bottom Line”, Associated Press dispatch, 10 April.

Lowry, Brian (2002) “Newscasts too Often Employ Scare Tactics”, The Los Angeles Times, 16 October.

Lowry, Tom (2002) “Online Extra: the case against an ABC/CNN merger”, 2 December,

Maguire, Miles (2002) “Business as Usual”, American Journalism Review, October.

Maihafer, Harry J. (2001) War of Words: Abraham Lincoln and the civil war press, Washington, DC: Brassey’s.

Mallet, Victor and Larsen, Peter Thal (2002) “Criminal Problem Deals Fresh Blow to Vivendi”, Financial Times, 5 November, p. 1.

Margolis, Michael (2002) “PBS President Speaks on U.S., World Media”, Cornell Daily Sun, 14 November.

McChesney, Robert W. (1999) Rich Media, Poor Democracy, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, p. 245.

McLeod, Jaime (2002) “Media Icon Walter Cronkite Remains as Sharp as Ever”, 30 October,

McManus, John H. (1994) Market-driven Journalism: let the citizen beware?, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mermigas, Diane (2002) “Investigation Dampening News of Deal”, Electronic Media, 26 August, p. 20.

Meyer, Jane (2000) “Bad News: what’s behind the recent gaffes at ABC?”, The New Yorker, 14 August, pp. 30–6.

Meyerson, Harold (2001) “If I Had a Hammer: whatever happened to America’s working class?”, The Los Angeles Times, 2 September.

Mindich, David T. Z. (1998) Just the Facts: How "Objectivity" Came to Define American Journalism, New York: New York University Press.

Mitchell, Alison (2002) “Democrats See Scandals as Chance to Attack Privatizing Social Security”, The New York Times, 13 July, p. A9.

Moraes, Lisa de (2002a) “Exclusive Perks: CNN’s red-carpet ‘get’ in the Blake story”, The Washington Post, 23 April, p. C7.

Moraes, Lisa de (2002b) “When ‘Push’ Comes to Shove”, The Washington Post, 6 September, p. C7.

Moy, Patricia and Pfau, Michael (2000) With Malice Toward All? The media and public confidence in public institutions, Westport, CT: Praeger.

Multinational Monitor (2002a) “Andersen, Politics and Money: by the numbers”, January/February, p. 44.

Multinational Monitor (2002b) “The Corporate Crime Wave: the response”, December, p. 5.

Mundy, Alicia (2001) Dispensing with Truth: the victims, the drug companies, and the dramatic story behind the battle over Fen-Phen, New York: St. Martin’s Press.

New York Times, The (2002) “Editor is Dismissed over Truth of Article”, 19 November, p. A26.

Nieves, Evelyn and Bumiller, Elisabeth (2002) “In Twin Speeches, Bush and Cheney Vow to Fight Fraud”, The New York Times, 8 August, p. A19.

Nunberg, Geoffrey (2002a) “Label Whores”, The American Prospect, 6 May.

Nunberg, Geoffrey (2002b) “Sill Unbiased: closing the case on media labeling”, 15 May,

O’Dwyer’s PR Daily (2002) “Releases Go into the Garbage”, 13 November.

O’Keefe, Mark (2002) “Right Wing’s Strength in Talk Radio, New Media Frustrates Democrats”, Newhouse News Service, 24 November.

Oleck, Joan (2001) “Training Scribes for the Biz Beat”, Business Week, 28 May, p. 16.

Opel, Rich (2002) “The Anticorporate Crowd’s Foolish Self-destruction”, Austin American-Statesman, 8 December, p. E8.

Oppel, Jr., Richard A. (2002) “Senator Releases Documents on Gore Aide’s Enron Ties”, The New York Times, 13 November, p. C6.

Oppel, Jr., Richard A. (2003) “Senate Report Clears Rubin of Illegality in Enron Matter”, The New York Times, 3 January, pp. C1, C10.

Orwall, Bruce (2001) “Dinosaur Ad Crosses a Line at Newspapers”, The Wall Street Journal, 18 July, p. B8.

Parker, Danielle M. (2000) “Study Asks Whether TV News is Slipping”, Electronic Media, 9 October, p. 20.

Parry, Robert (2002) “Media-Homeless Liberals”, 13 November, Parry, Robert (2003) “Price of the ‘Liberal Media’ Myth”, 1 January,

Pasley, Jeffrey L. (2001) (“The Tyranny of Printers”: newspaper politics in the early American Republic, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Peers, Martin and Cohen, Laurie P. (2002) “SEC Probes AOL–Oxygen Pact for Double-Booking of Revenue”, The Wall Street Journal Online, 7 October.

People for the American Way (1995) Buying a Movement: right-wing foundations and American politics.

Pew Research Center, The (2000) “Self Censorship: how often and why”, 30 April, 3 39.

Pohlman, Kimberley (2000) “Solid Ratings Don’t Protect Progressive Radio Voices”, Extra!, July/August, p. 22.

Ponder, Stephen (1998) Managing the Press: origins of the media presidency, 1897–1933, New York:

Palgrave. Potter, Deborah (2002) “Pessimism Rules in TV Newsrooms”, Columbia Journalism Review, November/December, p. 90.

Pring, George W. and Canan, Penelope (1983) First Amendment and Libel: the experts look at print, broadcast & cable, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Pring, George W. and Canan, Penelope (1996) SLAPPs: getting sued for speaking out, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Puette, William J. (1992) Through Jaundiced Eyes: how the media view organized labor, Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Pulitzer, Joseph (1989) “Selection from the College of Journalism”, in Goldstein, Tom (Ed.), Killing the Messenger: 100 years of media criticism, New York: Columbia University Press. (Originally published in North America Review, May 1904.)

Raeburn, Paul (2000) “The Corruption of TV Health News”, Business Week, 28 February, pp. 66, 68.

Ramon, Cris (2002) “ ‘Dateline’ Reporter: remain critical of media”, 13 November,

Rampton, Sheldon and Stauber, John (2001) Trust Us, We’re Experts: how industry manipulates science and gambles with your future, New York: Putnam.

Reed, Adolph (2002) “The Road to Corporate Perdition”, The Progressive, September, p. 31.

Reeds, Nolan and Colbourne, Freda (2000) “Fewer Gatekeepers, More Open Gates”, Strategy Magazine, 6 November, p. 25.

Rendall, Steve (2001) “Fox’s Slanted Sources”, Extra!, July/August, p. 13. Reuters dispatch (2002) “Eisner’s Participation in IPO Under Review”, 18 December,

Romero, Simon and Atlas, Riva D. (2002) “WorldCom Files for Bankruptcy; largest U.S. case”, The New York Times, 22 July, pp. A1, A12.

Schaeffer, Brett (2002) “Minority Reporter”, In These Times, 19 August, p. 8.

Schell, Orville (2002) “How Big Media Missed the Big Story”, 19 July,

Scheuer, Jeffrey (1999) The Sound Bite Society: television and the American mind, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.

Schiller, Ben (2002) “Where Did All the Reporters Go?”, 13 February,

Schneider, Michael (2002) “Local Newscasts Fall Victim to Cost Cuts”, Variety, 25 January–3 February, p. 22.

Schudson, Michael (1995) The Power of News, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Serrin, Judith and Serrin, William (Eds) (2002) Muckraking! The journalism that changed America, New York: The New Press.

Serrin, William (Ed.) (2000) The Business of Journalism, New York: The New Press.

Shales, Tom (2002a) “Too Entertained to be Outraged”, Electronic Media, 22 July, p. 33.

Shales, Tom (2002b) “When Serious News Goes Pop”, Electronic Media, 18 November, p. 23.

Shaw, David (2002) “Journalists Losing Touch with the Man on the Street”, 8 December,

Sinclair, Upton (2003) The Brass Check, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Smith, Rebecca (2000) “Blockbuster, Enron Agree to Movie Deal”, The Wall Street Journal, 20 July, p. A3.

Solomon, Norman (2001) “Bloomberg’s Victory and the Triumph of Business News”, syndicated column, Creators Syndicate, 8 November.

Solomon, Norman (2002) “The Old Spin on the ‘New Economy’ ”, 18 July,

Solomon, Norman (2003) “Announcing the P.U.-litzer Prizes for 2002”, syndicated column, 3 January,

Squires, James D. (1993) Read All About It! The corporate takeover of America’s newspapers, New York: Times Books.

Stevenson, Richard W. and Bumiller, Elisabeth (2002) “Parties Jousting over Wrongdoing by U.S. Businesses”, The New York Times, 8 July, pp. A1, A14.

Stille, Alexander (2000) “Thinkers on the Left Get a Hearing Everywhere but at Home, The New York Times, 11 November.

Streitfeld, David (2002) “Feds Subpoena Firm Controlled by News Corp.”, 3 October,

Streitmatter, Rodger (2001) Voices of Revolution: the dissident press in America, New York: Columbia University Press.

Teather, David (2002) “Memo Emerges to Haunt President”, The Guardian (UK), 2 November.

Tharp, Paul (2002) “Kann Gives Angry WSJ-ers a New Lesson in Capitalism”, 5 December,

Trigoboff, Dan (2002a) “Live at 11? Maybe not for long”, Broadcasting & Cable, 11 February, p. 29.

Trigoboff, Dan (2002b) “It Depends on What ‘Hard’ Is”, Broadcasting & Cable, 27 May, p. 18.

Trigoboff, Dan (2002c) “No Good News for Local News”, Broadcasting & Cable, 18 November, p. 12.

Trigoboff, Dan and McClellan, Steve (2002) “Watchdogs Howl Over ABC/CNN”, Broadcasting & Cable, 25 November, p. 1.

Tuchman, Gaye (1978) Making News: a study in the construction of reality, New York: The Free Press.

Underwood, Doug (1993) When MBAs Rule the Newsroom, New York: Columbia University Press.

U.S. Newswire (2003) “Public Misconception About Poverty Continues”, 7 January,

Vranica, Suzanne (2001) “Publicist Group Bolsters its PR Holdings”, The Wall Street Journal, 30 May, p. B7.

Wall Street Journal, The (2000) “Gannett Allows Front-page Ads at Local Papers”, 25 May, p. B4.

Wall Street Journal Online, The (2002) “Gemstar Announces Transition of SEC Probe to Formal Status”, 21 October.

Walley, Wayne (2002) “Fox News Sweeps to TV Marketer of Year”, Advertising Age, 4 November, pp. 1, 22.

Wang, Karissa S. (2000) “WCBS in Ethics Firestorm over Ad”, Electronic Media, 17 April, pp. 3, 44.

Wang, Karissa S. (2001) “Study: TV news big on violence”, Electronic Media, 10 December, p. 16.

Weisbrot, Mark (2003) “Making Accountants Liable for Corporate Fraud”, 2 January,

Weissman, Robert and Mokhiber, V (2002) “Cracking Down on Corporate Crime, Really”, 23 July,

Westin, Av (2000) Best Practices for Television Journalists, Arlington, VA: The Freedom Forum, p. 5. Westin, Av (2001) “ ‘Minutes’ Master Misses Mark”, Variety, 16–22 April, p. 35.

Wheat, Andrew (2002) “System Failure: deregulation, political corruption, corporate fraud and the Enron debacle”, Multinational Monitor, January/February, pp. 34–42.

White, Erin (2001) “P&G to Use Plugs in TV News Stories to Send Viewers to its Web Sites”, The Wall Street Journal, 7 March, pp. B1, B6.

Williams, Bruce A. and Delli Carpini, Michael X. (2002) “Heeeeeeeeeeeeere’s Democracy!”, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 19 April, p. B14.

Woodhull, Nancy J. and Snyder, Robert W. (Eds) (1998) Defining Moments in Journalism, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. (2001) “CNN Headline News to Display Ad Logos”, 1 August. (2000) “Sunday Morning Talk Shows Ignore Corporate Power Issues”. (2002) “Ken Auletta: ‘The drive to achieve synergy is often journalism’s poison’ ”, 19 December.

Zerbisias, Antonia (2002) “American Media Keep the Liberals Invisible”, Toronto Star, 1 October.

Zuckerman, Diana (2002) “Hype in Health Reporting”, 25 November,
  • Post a new comment


    Comments allowed for friends only

    Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal

    default userpic

    Your IP address will be recorded