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[Page 278]

imposed concentration in nearly a dozen provinces to help suppress postwar upheavals. Two of these campaigns—those waged in Albay Province in 1903 and Samar in 1907-8—were run by Marinduque veterans Harry H. Bandholtz and Frederick A. Smith respectively. The success of the Army's "experiment" on Maiinduque thus had an immediate effect on U.S. pacification operations over the nest decade. 48

Nor was this influence short-lived. As a result of the Philippine experience, the General Service and Staff College expanded its course on military government to include "guerrilla warfare" and "concentration," while two influential postwar textbooks written by Army generals William E. Birkhimer and George B. Davis, endorsed concentration and the "laying waste [of] a portion of the territory of the enemy." As time passed and memories faded, the Army began to forget the role that concentration and devastation had played in the Philippine War. Nevertheless, as late as 1926, curricular materials used at the Infantry School listed concentration as a viable method of population control, albeit one that needed to be carefully managed. Thus concentration remained a part of the Army's counterinsurgency repertoire up to the eve of World War II, when preparations for the global conflagration to come pushed the study of "Small Wars" to the outermost periphery of Army thought. 49

The Maiinduque campaign also sheds light on the nature of the Philippine War. "It is evident," wrote Secretary of War Elihu Root about the war as a whole, "that the insurrection has been brought to an end both by making a war distressing and hopeless on the one hand and by making peace attractive."50 The campaign on Marinduque illustrates the Army's dual approach to pacification. As long as the guerrillas remained viable and the population was not unduly discomforted by the war, the policy of attraction proved unpersuasive. Once the Army began to make the people feel the hard hand of war, however, they grasped at the hand of friendship. In fact, coercion dominated the pacification equation, for during the period of active hostilities the Army did very little in the way of "attraction" other than trying to restore civil governments and maintain a favorable relationship between the soldiery and the population. It

[Page 279]

neither reopened Marinduque's schools nor undertook any public works projects until after Abad had laid down his arms. Thus the Army pacified Marinduque not by winning the allegiance of the people, but by imposing coercive measures to control their behavior and separate them from the insurgents in the field.

The Marinduque campaign indicates that one must approach with caution interpretations of the Philippine War that overemphasize the importance of the "policy of attraction." Ultimately, military and security measures proved to be the sine qua non of Philippine pacification. Unfortunately, the reluctance of Taft and others to openly discuss the Philippine experience tended to obscure the degree to which coercion was responsible for America's victory. This reticence in turn helped give rise later in the century to strategic theories that unduly emphasized the importance of the political/nation-building aspects of counterinsurgency at the expense of more practical military measures. As Philippine veteran Robert Bullard wrote, pacification requires "a judicious mixture of force and persuasion, of severity and moderation."51 Only by realizing the uneasy, yet symbiotic, relationship between attraction and compulsion can one shape a viable counter-insurgency program.



Men of the: 29th US Volunteer Infantry wade ashore a. Marinduque Island, 25 April 1900.

Footnotes

1. Philip Jessup, Elihu Root, vol. 1 (New York: Dodd, Mead, & Co., 1938), 341.

2. War Department, Bureau of Insular Affairs, A Pronouncing Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary of the Philippine Islands (Washington; War Department, 1902), 643-47; Bureau of (he Census, Census of the Philippine Islands, 4 vols. (Washington: Census Bureau, 1905), 4: 184, 190-92 (henceforth cited as Census).

3. Lacey to HQ 4th District, Department of Southern Luzon (hereafter as 4D, DSL), January 1901, and "Notes on guerrilla crimes," n.d., both in Reoord Group (RG) 395, Entry (E) 3772, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Washington, D.C.; ''Case of Nemesio Mabango, Pilot," 12 February 1902, RG 395, E

4. "Information Concerning Insurrectos," attached to Benjamin to Wagner, Adjutant General (AG), DSL, 25 December 1900, RG 395, E 2330.

5. War Department, Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1900, vol. 1, pt. 4 (Washington: GPO, 1901), 446 (hereafter as WDAR, followed by the appropriate fiscal year).

6. WDAR, 1900, l(pt. 3): 33; Jordan to mother, 25 May 1900, John L. Jordan Papers, Spanish American War Survey (SPAW S), 38th Infantry Regiment, U.S. Army Military History Institute (MHI), Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.

7. Jordan to mother, 18 May (quote), 25 May, and 20 June 1900, SPAWS, 38th Infantry.

8. Ilardin to AG, Division of the Philippines, 19 September 1900, RG 395, DSL, E2330.

9. Report of Action near Boac, Marinduque, P.I., on July 31st, 1900, RG 395, E 2458.

10. Reports of Operations of the Garrison of Santa Cruz, Marinduque, for July and August, 1900, RO 395, E 2458.

11. WDAR, 1901, l(pt. 5): 455-61.

12. Wilson to AG, DSL, telegrams, 15, I8, and 18 September 1900, RG 395, B 2458; Wilson to Commanding Officer, 4D, DSL, 26 September 1900, RG 395, E 2458.

13. Anderson to HQ DSL, 19 October 1900, RG 395, E 2330; Jordan to mother, 30 September & 6 October 1900, SPAWS, 38th Infantry.

14. HQ, DSL to Hare, 3 October 1900 (1st quote); HQ, DSL to Hare, 4 October 1900 (2d quote); HQ DSL tci Hare, 17 October 1900, all in RG 395, E 2458.

15. Hare to HQ DSL, 18 October 1900, RG 395, E 5175.

16. Polo Island was also known as, Santa Cruz Island Census 2:312, 366; Hare to Anderson and Harbach, 8 October 1900; Hare to HQ DSL, 18 October 1900, both in RG 395, E 5175.

17. Ralph L. Bitting to mother, n.d., (quote), SPAWS, 1st Infantry; "A Story About a Soldier," Arthur L. Koch Papers, 27-28, MHI.

18. Wright to HQ DSL, 7 November 1900; Lt Hugh Williams to HQ. DSL, 10 November 1900, both in RG 395, E 2330; Bitting to mother, n.d., (quote), SPAWS, 1st Infantry.

19. Jordan to mother, 19 October (quote) and 29 October 1900, SPAWS, 38th Infantry; Wright to Bates, 10 December 1900, RG 395, E 2458.

20. HQ DSL to Corliss, 21 November 1900 (quote); HQ DSL to Hare, 21 November 1900, telegram, both in RG 395, E 2458; Report of Operations of the Garrison of Boac for November 1900, RG 395, E 3180.

21. General Orders No. 1, HQ Island of Marinduque, 8 December 1900, RG 395, E 2460.

22. General Orders No. 1, 8 December 1900, RG 395, E 2460; Jordan to mother, 29 October 1900 (quote), SPAWS, 38th Infantry; John Gates, Schoolboys and Krags: The United States Army in the Philippines, 1898-1902 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973), 187-220.

23. HQ DSL to HQ 4D, DSL, 17 October and 22 December 1900; Wright to Bates, 10 December 1900 (2d quote), all of the above in RG 395, F. 245S; HQ DSL to C/O, Boac, 24 December 1900, RG 395, E 3178; Gates, Schoolbooks and Krags, 187-200, 206-7 (1st quote).

24. Corliss to HQ DSL, 31 December 1900, RG 395, E 3178; "Charges and Specifications Preferred Against Martin Lardizubal." ,31 December 1900., RC, .195, E .3180.

25. "Hike Book of Sgt Maj Irving Heaslip," 27, Irving Heaslip folder, SPAWS, 2d Infantry (hereafter cited as "Hike Book").

26. "Hike Book," 36-37, 41, 42, 50-51; Jordan to Adjutant, Boac, 11 January 1901, RG 395, E 5170.

27. Most property destroyed by the Army on Marinduque was civilian. Phrases in reports, like "no sign of Insurgent fortifications or storehouses “Killed 13 head of cattle, 9 carabao, and 15 ponies and destroyed and burned 800 pounds of palay and 9 houses," and "burned 63 houses, one of which was Insurrectos" indicate the comprehensiveness of Corliss's orders. "Hike Book," 29, 35, 40.

28. The Katipunan society was a secret organization dedicated to Philippine independence. "Information Concerning Insurrectos," attachment to Benham to HQ DSL, 25 December 1900, RG 395, E 2330; Corliss to AG, DSL, 26 January 1901, RG 395 E 3178.

29. "List of Natives who have taken the Oath of Allegiance to the United States, at Boac, Island of Marinduque, P.I., or those whose; oaths have been on file at Boac," RG 395, E 3180.

30. Lacey to HQ Marinduque, 23 January 1901, with endorsement, 30 January 1901; HQ Marinduque to Commanding Officer, Gasan, 25 and 27 January 1901, all in RG 395, E 2460; Jordan to HQ 4D, DSL, 16 January 1901, RG 395, E 5170; Report of Operations of the Garrison of Santa Cruz for January 1901, RG 395, E 2458; Jordan to HQ. Marinduque, 30 January 1901, RG 395, E 3178.

31. Bates to Hare, 8 December 1900, RG 395, E 2458; HQ DSL to Corliss, 24 December 1900, RG 395, E 3178; WDAR, 1901, l(pt. 5): 480.

"Hike Book," 68; G.O. No. 10, HQ. Marladuque, 7 February 1901; HQ. Marinduque to Commanding Officer, Qasan, 8 and 9 February 1901, both in RG 395, E 3772; HQ Marinduque to Commanding Officer, Santa Cruz, 9 February 1901 (quote), RG 395, E 5172.

Fremont to HQ Marinduque, 27 February 1901; Cullison to HQ Marinduque, February 1901, both in RG 395, E 317S; HQ Marinduque to Commanding Officer, Santa Cruz, 10 February 1901, RG 395, E 5172.

34. Smith to HQ DSL, 27 February 1901; Fremont to Smith, 25 February 1901; Smith to Fremont, 26 February 1901; Fremont to Smith, 26 February 1901, all in RG 395, E 3178.

35. "Hike Book," 75.

36. General Orders No. 14, HQ Marinduque, 8 March 1901, RG 395, E 3180.

37. U.S. Senate, Philippine Committee, Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines, Sen. Doc. No. 331, 57th Cong., 1st session., 1902, 2443.

38. WDAR, 1901, l(pt. 9): 61- 65.

39. Glenn May, Battle for Batangas (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991), 183; Philippine Insurgent Records, Reel 52, SD 896-7, NARA.

40. Smith to HQ 4D, DSL, 6 April 1901, with attachment, Smith to Castaneda and Camantigue, 6 April 1901 (quote); Smith to HQ DSL, 16 April 1901, both in RG 395, 2458.

41. Smith to HQ 4D DSL, 27 April 1901, telegram; Smith to HQDSL, 3 May 1901, both in RG 395, E 2458; General Orders No. 15, HQ Marinduque, 29 April 1901 (quote), RG 395, E 5172; HQ 4D DSL to HQ DSL, 2 August 1901, RG 395, E 2457.

42. Dempsey to HQ DSL, 13 Jol 1901, RO 39S, E 2457; "Descriptive Card of Inhabitants, Ricardo Paras," (intelligence quote) RG 395, E 2460; Wotherspoon to Smith, 10 December 1901 (Wotherspoon quote) RG 395, E 3180.

43. WDAR, 1901, l(pt. 9): 188-92; Dempsey to Paras, 29 August 1901; Gait to Wotherspoon, 27 November 1901; Wotherspoon to Gait, 28 November 1901, all in RG 395, E 3180; HQ 30th lnf, copy of letter, Embry to lift, 4 November 1901, RG 395, E 3772; HQ30th Infantry to Commanding Officer, Santa Cruz, 19 October 1901, and Commanding Officer Santa Cruz to AG, 31 May 1902, both in RG 395, E 5170.

44. Wotherspoon to Gait, 28 November 1901; Wotherspoon to Smith, 10 Decem ber 1901, both in RG 395, E 3180; Wotherspoon to Commanding Officer, Gasan, 11 December 1901, RG 395, E 3772; WDAR, 1902, l(pt. 9): 155.

45. "Notes for Gaplain Stogsdall," 25 January 1902; Smith to HQ Philippine Constabulary, 5 March 1902; Report of Operations of the Garrison of Boac for January 1902, all in RG 395, E. 3178; Bandholtz to HQ4D, DSL, 14 July 1901, RG 395, E 2458; Wotherspoon to Smith, 27 January & 22 April 1902; Smith to Wotherspoon, 7,17, and 19 February 1902 and 11 March 1902; Smith to HQ Philippine Constabulary, 18 March 1902; Wotherspoon to Linebarger, 11 March 1902; Smith to Trant, 17 March 1902, all of the above in RG 395 E 3180; WDAR, 1902, l (pt, 9): 268; WDAR, 1902, l (pt, 10): 203; Commanding Officer Gazan to HQ30th Infantry, 19 January 1902, RG 395, E 3769.

46. Data compiled from WDARs, RG 395, and the "Hike Book."

47. The amount of land in production throughout the Philippines as a whole declined by 18.7 percent during the war, far less than that experienced by Marinduque. Census, 3: 83,139,494; and 4:199-200,384-94; Senate Document No. 331, 1485-93, 2444; WDAR, 1901, l(pt. 9): 385; WDAR, 1902, l(pt. 9): 272; WDAR, 1903, l(pt. 6): 123.

48. James Blount, The American Occupation of the Philippines, 1899-1912 (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912), 417.

49. WDAR, 1903,1: 104; Annual Report of the Genenal Service and Staff College, 1903-4, 132; Annual Report qf the Army Service Schools, 1909, 67; William Birkhimer, Military Government and Martial Law (Kansas City, Mo.: Franklin Hudson, 1904), 124; George Davis, The Elements of International Law (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1903), 304 ("laying waste" quote); Infantry School, "Minor Warfare," 50. Instructional Material, 1923-24, vol. 1, Special Operations; Infantry School, "Small Wars and Punitive Expeditions," Instructional Matter, 1925-26, vol. 2, Tactics.

50. W. Cameron Forbes, The Philippine Islands, vol. 1 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1928), 107.

51. Robert Bollard, "Military Pacification," Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 46 (January-February 1910): 4-5.
Tags: philippines, war, war crimes
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